Tuesday, March 17, 2020
buy custom Theodore Roethke essay Theodore Roethke was among the modern American poets who are exceptionally gifted in 1940s and 1950s. He was greatly admired for his innovative language application and imaginative inane technique in describing the metaphor of worldly existence. His first book, the Open House was published in 1941 which created critical attention and became a blockbuster among his The Lost Son and Other Poems in1948, Praise to the End! in 1951, Words for the Wind in 1957 and The Far Field in 1964. This thesis will try to explain why most of Roethkes poetry mostly evolved in greenhouse setting. Roethkes collected poems are forms of poetry which fully reveals his major achievements wherein he was able to perceive the reality of tensions that surround the inner and the outer worlds. His poetry depicts his experiences in the greenhouse during his youth which begun in 1941 entitled Open House which won a Pulitzer Award and National Book Awards among others. He was also given the Bollingen Prize by Pennsyl vania University in 1959. Theodore Roethke was born in 1908 on the west side of the river in Saginaw, Michigan. His father who was a German immigrant and market-gardener owned a greenhouse together with Theodores uncle where he spent most of his time. This experience can be reflected by the way he used natural metaphors when delving with his poetry. His adolescent years had been jarred by the death of his father who suffered from cancer and the death of his uncle who committed suicide on same year in 1923. Theodore was only 15 at that time thus such unpleasant event had jarred his psyche and the way he had molded his creative life into the world of poetry. Roethke became eminent when he graduated with magna cum laude honors at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor in 1929. He stood against the family pressure for him to pursue his study in law and took his chosen graduate courses from University of Michigan and later at Harvard Graduate School and worked along with Robert Hillyer who was also a poet himself. The economic crisis during the Great Depression drove Roethke to shift from Harvard to Lafayette College and took a teaching course. He then met Rolfe Humphries who introduced Louise Bogan to him. These people became his avid supporters and colleague. They became friends to poet Stanley Kunits. In 1935 Roethke assumed responsibility in his second post in teaching at Michigan State College in Lansing but he was hospitalized due to frequent mental illness. Consequently, Roethke made use of these periodic recurrences of depression to explore a rather new level in reality through innovative self-exploration. As quoted by Theodore Roethke: The greenhouse is my symbol for the whole of life, a womb, a haven-on-earth unquote. The Poetry Foundation also notes that the love poems he made won praises which appeared in The Walking in a separate section of the book in stanzaic form as noted by Stanley Kunitz. One of Roethkes critics, Ralph Mills, defined the amatory work as a combination of consideration of self with potentials of eroticism as well as sensuality and more importantly, his poems introduced and maintained a fascination that is beyond ones self as described with the representation of another or the beloved female figure. Roethkes poems also depicts his weaknesses by the imitative attributes on his other lesser successful verses and the limitations of areas in his favor. He is one the finest poets in this world who threatens the existence of man as an object. The contemplative Roethke made it known to use his own personal experience as the source of his art on his first publication, Open House. It was not very surprising that the book replicated the derivative and somehow traditional elements of a beginners conscious imitation. Notwithstanding the limitations that are quite visible in Open House, Seager tacitly acknowledged that those are works of a seasoned poet and just a neophyte despite the adverse criticisms. Stanley Kunitz was overwhelmed with Roethkes form of art and as a person himself. The Poetry Foundation likewise noted the early reviews of Roethkes works in response to the critics reviews. W. D. Snodgrass commented that it was conservative and prerevolutionary. The poems can easily be grasped and that the metric were normal and conventional. He added further that the volume achieved had the effect of something like a frigid-controlled hysteria as often felt by the readers of Emily Dickenson. The Open House was a relevant exodus for Roethke. It was favorably published in different reviews such as the Atlantic, the Saturday Review, the New Yorker and the Kenyon Review. W. H. Auden applauded that it was a total success. Roethkes works showed several influence taken from the works of famous poetic models whose verses had molded his imagination as well as style such as (name of poets). Elizabeth Drew pointed out in other reviews that Roethkes poems had a graceful movement with precise description of images and expression with gnomic utterances so peculiar of him while attaining strict observation of language which can seldom be found in poets nowadays. Roethke kept all t he critics views as well as other commentaries of his works as a contemplation of his creativity. As expected, critics took up Roethkes greenhouse experiences as the prevalent focus of his poems. Roethke was enticed to delliver in one of the high-status lectures at Morris Gray in Harvard a year after the Open House was circularized. In 1943, he departed Penn State and joined top personalities at Bennington College such as Kenneth Burke and Lonie Adams. He was challenged to foster as teaching poet by Bennington. His association with Burke played a very important role to Roethkes second volume The Lost Son among his other poems in 1948. The Lost Son was Roethkes far-reaching book had considerably won him praises from other writers such as Michael Harrington and critic Ian Hamilton. So-called greenhouse poems, the opening of the book had fourteen lyrics with the metaphor of an open house passing through the glasshouse which symbolizes ones inner self in relation to human existence. During the BBC broadcast sometime on July 30, 1953, Roethke described the glasshouse as a descripti on of heaven and hell combined. It was the universe in different worlds in which a child worries about to struggle in order to live. The poets denouement of subhuman world served as counterpart of Roethkes own imagery that staged back Roethke being a lost son and his psychic incongruity towards the non-existent patriarch Otto Roethke. Roethke was married to Beatrice OConnell in 1953. Like most of American poets of his time, he was prone to drinking spree and susceptible to illness. Beatrice was not informed of his repetitive depressions yet Beatrice remained a dedicated wife to him and supportive of his works. Roethkes final volume was The Far Field including Meditation at Oyster River. The Return was introduced by Folkways Records under George Abbes album: Anthology of Contemporary American Poetry. The succeeding year, Roethke published his album entitled: Words for the Wind Poems of Theodore RoethkeIn 1963, Theodore Roethke died by cardiac arrest in his friends swimming pool at Baindridge Island, Washington at the age of 55. His remains now lie in Saginaws Oakwood Cemetery. Roethkes meritorious work was characterized by his recurring childhood reminiscence and remarkable primordial imagery which elevated autobiographic specific to exemplary significance. His playful and dynamic verses relied abundantly on spontaneous word associations as well as careful framework of sonic effect. His penetrating exploration and subconscious mind from the past reflected lifelong search for harmony which sought for self-acceptance and otherworldliness. He was highly respected for his ingenuity and the capability to evoke personal experience universally which greatly influenced the advancement of American poetry after the war. Buy custom Theodore Roethke essay
Saturday, February 29, 2020
The Ã¢â¬Å"Body Ritual Among the NaciremaÃ¢â¬ by Horace Miner, is an article that examines the various rituals that manifests within industrialized societies, specifically referencing to the United States. In the article Miner joked about the invasion of privacy and the obsession of becoming immortal. Miner provides gives outstanding evidence that the characteristics or an attitude of the human body has a broad influence on a variety of institutions in the Nacirema society. Throughout the article Miner provides an understanding perspective how Americans do similar rituals in a different point of view. One key word that was emphasized in the article that numerous times was Ã¢â¬Å"ritualÃ¢â¬ and how it transformed the way we lives. It clearly mentions how our society perceives that idea and whether we act positively or negatively to it. Miner implements a wonderful inscription on the readers thought as how other societies may view our own. After reading the article, I agree with many ideas Miner made about society because of country does use exaggerated body image and misuse the idea of preventive medicine. The natural tendency of the human body and mind has always sparked a great debate. For example, were humans born with good or a bad intention is an ongoing debate. Remarkably, these beliefs are also reflected within a society or cultures even today. A group called Nacirema, located in North America, believed that the human body is ugly and is prone to Ã¢â¬Å"natural tendencyÃ¢â¬ which was debility and disease. Following this Ã¢â¬Å"natural tendencyÃ¢â¬ , the Ã¢â¬Å"holy mouth manÃ¢â¬ used magical instruments and drilled them into the holes of cavities created by tooth decay. Although this practice was believed to cure the problem it only intensified the infection in the tooth. Also there was a medicine man that treated sick patients which ultimately leaves them in a state where they can never be cured. These practices were performed in Nacirema, which showed their faith towards the natural law of humans. In contrast to the NacriemaÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, our modern society has somewhat of different approach to this Ã¢â¬Å"natural tendencyÃ¢â¬ . In general, it is inevitably that all humans will age which means they are more susceptible to becoming ill. Thus, the Ã¢â¬Å"natural tendencyÃ¢â¬ in our modern society does not differ much from the Nacirema culture. Yet, our modern society seems to disapprove the natural tendency. People try to look more youthful by applying cosmetics, treat diseases and vaccines shots regularly. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society the rituals of the Nacirema may seem cruel and inhumane. However the Nacriema culture can be characterized as following the natural tendency, which is the law of the universe. Therefore, based on the analysis of the two distinct perspectives toward our approach to nature, it can be known that cultural relativism is needed when looking at different cultures. MinerÃ¢â¬â¢s ironic article, Ã¢â¬Å"Body Ritual Among the NaciremaÃ¢â¬ is an entertaining social commentary can be argued to be ethnocentric. Miner knowingly chooses the American culture because of their cultural practices (the use of cosmetics and hygiene products). One would expect to hear the practice of our society is technologically primitive and tribal. Miner evokes this approach of thinking to the reader by attempting to unwittingly use our cultural preconceptions against our own customs. Ultimately I believe Miner achieved his goal to force readers to believe that concept. Similarly to every other culture, Americans have plenty of taboo practices that when viewed objectively they appear very illogical and in some cases ridiculous. Upon reaching his revelation, Miner says, Ã¢â¬Å"we should view the traditions of other cultures with an improved understanding. Ã¢â¬ However, I think it would be foolish to believe that we can ever completely eliminate ourselves of all cultural biases or ethnocentricity. Each individual will always view life at his or her own viewpoint. Perhaps this is what Miner was trying convey to us. Maybe he wanted us to view our culture and determine how we would be viewed in other cultures. The idea does spark great debate for those who conduct intellectual or scientific research. Nonetheless, they are in theory accountable to present their own findings without injecting their own opinions, but conversely this an absolutely unrealistic expectation. Try as they may, as I mentioned earlier; people will see things differently through there own eyes and any beliefs that accompanies their idea. In conclusion, I felt a bit saddened while reading, Ã¢â¬Å"Body Ritual Among the NaciremaÃ¢â¬ because there are a lot of people who stress so hard on appearance, rather than living life as humble and optimistically as possible. In fact, the whole article made the United States seem a bit sickening morally. If I could pretend that Nacirema was a culture outside of our country, I would never visit that country because of the harsh critics and judgments I would have to endure constantly. Frivolous judgments like how you look, the way you dress and how much wealth you generate. Overall IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned a lot and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anything about the Nacirema definitely an article everyone should read.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Atoms of metals and LIDAR - Essay Example pag). LIDAR is a remote sensing technology that can measure distances or properties of a material by laser illumination (Sanderson n. pag.). Origin of metal atoms in the atmosphere Normally, meteoroids enter the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere between 11 to 72 kilometres per second. Friction between the meteor and air molecules in the upper atmosphere generates enough heat to disintegrate it to particles less than 1mm in diameter. These particles are deposited at an altitude of 70 to 140 km in the upper atmosphere (Von Zahn, Hoffner and McNeil, 149). McNeil, Lai and Murad acknowledged the fact that meteoric material is the most significant source of metal atoms in the upper atmosphere. However, the amount of metal atoms in the atmosphere differs from the amount present in the meteor itself. This is attributed to the process known as differential ablation. Differential ablation suggests that more volatile metals vaporize earlier than less volatile metal components in a meteorite. Comparison between sodium, magnesium, and calcium ablation revealed that sodium is the most volatile of the three elements. Thus, sodium ablates at a much higher altitude. On the other hand, calcium ablates at a much lower altitude. Therefore, the rate of conversion of elemental calcium into compounds in the lower atmosphere is the primary cause of calcium ion depletion (10899-10911). Aside from sodium, metallic atoms of potassium, lithium, calcium and iron make up the rest of the metal atom layer in the mesosphere. The discovery of other metal constituents started in 1973. Potassium ions detected through the use of ruby-laser-pumped dye laser components calibrated at 769.9 and 766.5 nanometres. Lithium ions were identified using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser calibrated at 670.8 nanometres with 800 millijoules output pulse energy. Calcium was detected with a dye laser calibrated at 422.7 nanometres (Abo 315). Thin layers of sodium, calcium and iron have been detected by LIDAR in the upper atmo sphere. These layers range from 100 metres to several kilometres thick and usually superimpose on a background layer 10 kilometres thick. Despite efforts to ascertain the origins of sporadic layers, no single scientific explanation was accepted (Clemesha 725). Chemical role of metal atoms in the atmosphere The formation of metal layers in the upper atmosphere has been instrumental in several vital atmospheric processes. Rapp and Thomas have confirmed the role of mesospheric metal layers in the formation of noctilucent clouds through the nucleation of ice particles in the upper atmosphere (715-744). Murphy, Thomson and Mahoney investigated the composition of aerosol particles in the stratosphere and discovered the existence of meteoric particles in stratospheric aerosol. Thus a link was suggested between mesospheric metal particles and the condensation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols (1664-1669). Atmospheric observation over the South Pole was initiated through LIDAR to measure th e seasonal variations of the mesospheric sodium and iron layer. The polar annual mean abundance is almost equal to mid-latitude readings while the mean centroid height is 100 metres higher for sodium and 450 metres higher for
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Sexual Fetishes - Research Paper Example They are difficult to treat, partially because the individual may not want to give up the fetish, partially because the fetish is becoming more socially acceptable and they do not really harm anybody, and partially because there has not been an adequate treatment created (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders). However, sexual fetishism is only one type of fetish Ã¢â¬â the term fetishism can extend to any kind of object that is used for worship, such as religious objects or commodities (Dant, 1996, p. 5). According to Kafka (2009) the DSM-III does not account for individuals who have a fetish with certain body parts that are living, such as feet or hands. The hair and nails are considered to be non-living, which is why they were accorded a part of the DSM diagnosis for sexual fetishes and things like a fetish for hands and feet were not (Kafka, 2009). They were, however, later included in the DSM-III-R as being considered to be part of partialism, which was considered to be Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified (Kafka, 2009). The DSM-III-R expanded the definition of sexual fetishism from the DSM-III, stating that sexual fetishism is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a) over a period of at least six months, recurrent sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies involving the use of nonliving objects by themselves; b) the person has acted on these urges, or is markedly distressed by them; and c) the fetishes are not only articles of clothing used in cross-dressing, or devices designed for the purpose of tactile genital stimulationÃ¢â¬ (DSM-III-R 302.81). However, the DSM-III-R no longer mentioned body parts or products, such as hair and nails, but, rather, common objects such as stockings, bras, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s underpants, boots, shoes and other wearing apparel. These definitions, including classifying being sexually aroused by body parts such as feet and hands as partialism, or paraphilia not otherwise specified, have persisted in the DSM-IV and the DSM-IV TR (Kafka, 2009). Kafka (2009) discussed whether there should be a separate distinction between partialism and fetishism. Kafka concluded that the definition of fetishism be expanded to include partialism under the rubric of fetishism, as opposed to leaving the definition of partialism as being considered a paraphilia not otherwise specified (Kafka, 2009). One of the reasons why there is a separate category is that there is a necessity, for one to be diagnosed with any type of fetishism, that the individual cannot be sexually aroused unless he or she is in the presence of the particular inanimate object, or that this inanimate object is the primary way that the individual is sexually aroused. If the definition were expanded to include body parts, such as hands and feet, then fetishism loses its very definition, as the majority of people have hands and feet, so it goes without saying that hands and feet will be present in the vast majority of sexual situations(Kafka, 2009). Therefore, fetishism becomes blur red if hands and feet are included in the definition Ã¢â¬â if a person has a Ã¢â¬Å"fetishÃ¢â¬ with body parts that are present in most people, then that object will almost always be present, so there is no way of telling if the individual would be sexually aroused if the object such as the hands or feet are not present. On the other hand, when speaking of a true fetish, such as
Friday, January 24, 2020
Huckleberry Finn - A Racist Novel? There is a major argument among literary critics whether Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, is or is not a racist novel. The question boils down to the depiction of Jim, the black slave, and to the way he is treated by Huck and other characters. The use of the word "nigger" is also a point raised by some critics, who feel that Twain uses the word too much and too loosely. Mark Twain never presents Jim in a negative light. He does not show Jim as a drunkard, as a mean person or as a cheat. This is in contrast to the way Huck's (white) father is depicted, whom Twain describes using all of the above characterizations and more. We see Jim as a good friend, a man devoted to his family and loyal to his companions. He is, however, very naive and superstitious. Some critics say that Twain is implying that all blacks have these qualities. When Jim turns to his magic hairball for answers about the future, we see that he does believe in some foolish things. But all the same, he is visited by both blacks and whites to use the hairball's powers. This type of naivete was abundant at the time and found among all races-the result of a lack of proper education. So the depiction of Jim is not negative in the sense that Jim is stupid and inferior, and in this aspect of the story clearly there is no racism intended. It is next necessary to analyze the way white characters treat Jim throughout the book. Note that what the author felt is not the way most characters act around Jim, and his feelings are probably only shown through Huck. In the South during that period, black people were treated as less than humans, and Twain needed to portray this. The examples of the way Jim is denigrated: by being locked up, having to hide his face in the daytime and how he is generally derided, are necessary for historical accuracy. So, Mark Twain had to display Jim's treatment in this manner, even if it is not the way he felt. Huck, however, does not treat Jim as most whites do. Huck looks at Jim as a friend, and by the end of their journey, disagrees with society's notion that blacks are inferior. There are two main examples of this in the story.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
In so doing, Venkatesh revealed a complex mix of subculture (the Black Kings were a highly organised gang with a clear hierarchy, recruitment rituals, and socialisation processes) and culture Ã¢â¬â the gang were embedded in the day-to-day life of the Projects. Although their primary purpose was to make money through selling drugs (mainly crack cocaine), they also performed a range of secondary functions within their territory Ã¢â¬â from the provision of protection for Project residents from other gangs, through the organisation of social activities (such as Basketball games), to policing the Projects (involving things like the provision of shelter for Ã¢â¬Å"the homelessÃ¢â¬ .). a. Ethnicity: His South Asian ethnic background allowed him to pass among the overwhelmingly African-American subjects of his study in a way that would have probably been denied to him if he had been white (since the only Ã¢â¬Å"white facesÃ¢â¬ in the Projects were those of the police Ã¢â¬â and, with one or two notable exceptions, they rarely ventured into the place except to make arrests and, it is implicitly suggested, extort protection money). VenkateshÃ¢â¬â¢s initial encounter with the Black Kings was one where he was mistaken for a member of a rival (Mexican) gang Ã¢â¬â his ethnicity was variously considered by the people in the Projects to be Ã¢â¬Å"Mexican, Ã¢â¬Å"SpanishÃ¢â¬ or the largely-ubiquitous labelÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Ay-rabÃ¢â¬ . The fact he was relatively young, casually dressed and a student at the University also gave him credentials accepted by both those in the gang and the Projects generally Ã¢â¬â something that leads into a second consideration: His ethics, however, are questionable. He started doing research and had not gotten human subjects approval. He deceived his advisor and dissertation committee about the extent that he was embedded into the gang. He saw clearly illegal activities take place and never told anyone, and once or twice did something illegal. Their claims are not only that he was unethical, but that he put peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives at risk, that he lied to his main informant, JT, to get into the research site, and the only person who has benefited from the book is Venkatesh. To be fair, Venkatesh did teach a course when asked to, and on occasion he brought food or drink (often alcohol) to parties and such. The tenured radical folks mention approvinglyÃ Mitch DuneierÃ¢â¬â¢s Sidewalk (another great book) about homeless people and how he shares his royalties with those whom he interviewed The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s main focus is on race, as it examines the day-to-day struggles of the virtually all African-American residents in a poor housing project. However, there is much in the book that could be mined for courses in deviance, raceÃ¢ âethnicity, inequality, research methods, sociology of organizations, and to a lesser extent, gender. Issues of class, race and identity also surface, as Venkatesh (the child of middle-class South Asian immigrants) discusses his role as a Ã¢â¬Å"brown manÃ¢â¬ Southern Californian, and how his experiences shape his academic vantage point. Venkatesh sets up a clearly delineated debate on the qualitative-quantitative divide, coming down squarely on the qualitative side, learning early that the question Ã¢â¬Å"How does it feel to be Black and poor?Ã¢â¬ is n ot easily answered using a Likert scale. He deftly highlights issues of ethics, identity, raceÃ¢ âclassÃ¢ âgender dynamics in data collection, the realities of ethnographic work, and the value and use of qualitative versus quantitative methods of collecting data. Gang Leader for a Day throws into sharp relief the thorny issues of conducting ethical research. For instance, Venkatesh struggles with maintaining allegiances with powerful community members, while trying to forge close ties with less powerful residents. Venkatesh gives refreshingly honest, clear examples of his missteps. For instance, he focuses the target of his research on the underground economy of three high-rise buildings within the gangÃ¢â¬â¢s territory, and collects detailed information from residents about how much money they make, expenses they incur and so forth. Venkatesh talks with pimps and prostitutes, as well as those who sold food or offered child care in their apartments, styled hair, prepared taxes, offered psychic fortune telling, performed carpentry, fixed cars, collected scrap metal, as well as a host of other off-the-books businesses. Venkatesh provides a vivid, gritty account of life in a notorious Chicago housing project. His book interweaves issues of social class, race, ethnicity, gender, crime, deviance, and the study of organizations. Moreover, his perspective on the discipline is a compelling one; a self-described Ã¢â¬Å"rogueÃ¢â¬ sociologist,